JTPA and Training the Unemployed
The Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 (JTPA) came into affect to assist the unemployed seek employment or become employable through training and assistance. JTPA was the successor of a program known as the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 (CETA). Not much reference is given in current research and literature about the CETA program.
The purpose of JTPA is to provide training services for economically disadvantaged adults and youth, dislocated workers and others who face significant employment barriers. These activities are the responsibility of state and local governments in concert with the private sectors. The structure of JTPA is divided into six categories or titles.
· Title I describes the coordination of efforts among constituents.
· State Job Training Coordinating Councils are appointed by governors and composed of representatives of business, state agencies, local government and labor to recommend training components of the act and play a critical role in planning employment and training activities.
· Resource Investment Council
· Service Delivery Areas (SDA) are designated by governors to receive and distribute federal training funds.
· Private Industry Councils (PIC) are appointed by local elected officials to guide and oversee employment and training programs at the local level.
· Title IIA allows for training for economically disadvantaged and others who face significant employment barriers.
· Title IIB provides summer programs for economically disadvantaged young people.
· Title IIC funds year round training and employment for youth both in and out of school.
· Title III provides services for dislocated or laid off workers.
· Title IV provides programs for Native American, migrant seasonal farm workers, and veterans.
· Title VI is an amendment to the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933.
JTPA offers training and services through the six provisions or titles to meet the needs of its clients. JTPA offerings include objective assessments and the Individual Service Strategy.
Objective assessments examine client work history, job skills, education, interest and aptitudes, attitudes toward work, motivation, behavior patterns affecting employment potential, financial resources and needs, family situation, supportive service needs, and personal employment as it relates to the local labor market. Assessments are used to develop an employment goal and an Individual Service Strategy (ISS).
The [ISS], an individual plan developed jointly by the applicant and the case manager, shall include an employment goal, appropriate achievement objectives, and the appropriate combination of services for the applicant to become reemployed and shall be based on the objective assessment that has been conducted (http://wyjobs.state.wy.us/jtpa/jtpa.htm).
The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) replaces or assumes JTPA in July of 2000. WIA proposes to provide a streamlined, but flexible systems approach to providing workforce development services in the communities of America. Provisions include State Workforce Investment Boards, state plans, local provisions, youth councils, one-stop delivery systems, youth activities, adult and dislocated worker employment and training services, and much more.
Selected References for Further Reading
Ainsworth, R.G., Oakley, B.B., & Romero, C.J. (1991). The JTPA education- coordinator set-aside: States' implementation of the program. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy.
Blasberg, N., & Sorensen, E. (1996). Do immigrants use and need JTPA?: A report of the Department of Labor. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs.
Bowman, W.R. (1993). Evaluating JTPA programs for economically disadvantaged adults: A case study of Utah and general findings. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy.
Developing effective JTPA performance standards incentive policies: A technical assistance guide (1990). Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy.
Herman, A.M. (1999). Guide to JTPA performance standards for program years 1998 and 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Employment and Training Administration.
Implementation of the 1992 Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments: Report to Congress. (1992). Washington, DC: United States Employment and Training Administration.
Improving the quality of training under JTPA. (1991). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Strategic Planning and Policy Development.
JTPA financial management. (1995). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.
Job Training Program (JTPA). Http://wyjobs.state.wy.us/jtpa/jtpa.htm.
JTPA, state oversight. (1995). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Training Administration.
NGA Online: Summary of Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (H.R. 1385). Http://www.nga.org/workforce/summaryHR1385.htm.
Organized Labor's Guiding Principles. Http://www.workingforamerica.org/documents/factsheets.
Romero, C.J. (1994). JTPA programs and adult women on welfare: Using training to raise AFDC recipients above poverty. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy.
The American Institute for Full Employment: Welfare Reform Workforce. Http://www.fullemployment.org/wfia.html.
The Workforce Investment Act: Half Full or Half Empty? Http://www.fullemployment.org/whitepaper.html.
U.S. Workforce. Http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/508/508law.html.
U.S. Workforce. Http://www.usworkforce.org/wia/.
Workforce Investment Act of 1998. Http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/508/508law.html.
Workforce Investment Act. Http://workingforamerica.org/documents/workforce.htm.